Wretched, terrible, destructive year, the remnants of the people alone remain."
It was the international disease gripped planet Earth during the Middle Ages. In just four years, from 1341 to 1351, the Black Death killed up to 200 million people in Europe, with the disease steadily advancing west across the Continent. As a fifteen-year-old, princess Joan of England was to be betrothed to Peter of Castile. As Joan of England disembarked at Bordeaux she ignored the warnings of Bordeaux’s mayor, Raymond de Bisquale that the Black Death had gripped Bordeaux.
The royal castle where the princess and her entourage had lodged were surrounded by hundreds of decomposing corpses of the pestilence. Those still in the Black Death's grip showed tell-tale signs of infection: buboes, often painful and swollen lymph nodes as large as chicken eggs under the armpits. Those sick people were coughing up blood, lying prostrate from the fatigue of struggling with the plague before collapsing and dying in the street.
You can head to Promethease if you want to know what other genes you have."
What can I do with my raw AncestryDNA file?
I’ve noticed that one of the benefits of undertaking an AncestryDNA test is the ability to download the raw data. I’ve used this feature several times including uploading it to MyHeritage DNA, DNA.Land and to Promethease. You can expect over time for all of these consumer DNA companies to offer more and more analysis of your DNA sample. (I previously compared AncestryDNA and DNA.Land here, and my view on MyHeritageDNA is here. My review of Gene Heritage is also here.)
...is restricting codeine sales even necessary, even if codeine dosages are sub-therapeutic?
It's under 12 months now when in February 2018, codeine in Australia will no longer be available by just asking your pharmacist. It all began in late 2015, when Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration or the TGA published an interim preliminary finding recommending that all over-the-counter codeine medicines be rescheduled as prescription-only. The TGA was overwhelmed by the public outcry at the foreshadowed restrictions and announced a stay on rescheduling codeine, later announcing in December 2016, that codeine will become prescription-only.
Getting your opiate relief won't be so easy
One of the arguments for restricting codeine availability is its questionable clinical efficacy in managing pain, particularly with dosages of codeine at 8mg and 15mg. The therapeutic benefit can only be achieved at higher dosages, such as with Panadeine Forte (30mg).
The medical community also asserts the need for restrictions in the aim for public safety because of misuse. Australian research published in 2015, showed that between 2000 to 2009, there were 1437 deaths from overdose or intentional self-harm. According to the study, those who had overdosed, 'were more likely to be older, female and have a history of mental health problems; those who had accidentally overdosed were more likely to have a history of substance use problems, chronic pain and injecting drug use.'